AI algorithms can process real-time data from multiple sensors, evaluate the behaviour and characteristics of detected drones, and assess their potential threat levels.
AI has emerged as a powerful ally in the cat-and-mouse game between drones and counter-drone systems. Integrating AI algorithms in C-UAS operations has significantly enhanced the efficiency and effectiveness of counter-drone systems. From detecting drone threats to assessing their potential harm, enabling dynamic responses, fostering collaboration, and continuously learning, AI plays an important role in safeguarding against the evolving landscape of drone threats. As drone systems become increasingly sophisticated, AI provides the solutions necessary to match their sophistication and protect against potential risks.
“The function of artificial intelligence is to enhance the efficiency of various counter-drone systems. Several of Skylock’s systems integrate an AI element. One such system is the passive RF detection system, which like many systems, operates based on a defined library. Each drone scans for an electronic signature within this library. Upon a match, it signals an identification. However, if the drone’s data isn’t available in the library, it fails to recognise it. This is where AI steps in, aiding the system in detecting drones absent from the library. With AI, the system recognises an unregistered drone, alerting us to potential threats. Without AI, such recognition in the passive sphere would be non-existent,” says Skylock‘s CTO, Ofer Kachan.
“Furthermore, AI also plays a crucial role in our camera systems. Normally, locating the drone, locking onto the target, and allowing the camera to track automatically would be the procedure. In the absence of AI, if a flock of birds were to pass by, the automatic lock might incorrectly identify the bird as the drone. But with AI, the system can distinguish between the bird and the drone, maintaining its lock on the actual target. AI also contributes when the background is complex, such as when the drone is amidst trees. It facilitates easier locking onto and tracking of a target.”
“Another application of AI is within radar systems. It aids in the classification process, distinguishing whether the detected target is a drone, bird, or any other airborne entity. Skylock’s systems primarily aim to detect drones, with little interest in other entities. To minimise false alarms, directories and classifications play a pivotal role. Thus, AI assists in achieving a more accurate target classification. It has mechanisms that can identify novel targets unseen by the radar before.”
“In total, we utilise three distinct AI systems, with one fusing all the data to cross-verify information from all sensors. This provides refined information to the operator and helps to avert false alerts,” says Kachan.
AI brings many significant advancements to detecting drone threats in C-UAS operations. By leveraging machine learning algorithms, counter-drone systems can analyse vast amounts of data from various sensors, including radar, EO/IR and RF sensors. AI algorithms can identify patterns, classify different types of drones, and differentiate between friendly and hostile drones. This capability enables counter-drone systems to detect drone threats early on, enhancing situational awareness and providing timely warnings to ground troops or assets.
The application of AI in C-UAS allows for intelligent threat analysis. AI algorithms can process real-time data from multiple sensors, evaluate the behaviour and characteristics of detected drones, and assess their potential threat levels. By analysing factors such as speed, trajectory, payload capability, and communication patterns, AI-powered counter-drone systems can determine the intent and potential harm drones pose.
AI facilitates dynamic response and countermeasures in C-UAS operations. By integrating AI algorithms into the counter-drone system, real-time analysis of drone threats allows for swift decision-making. AI-powered C-UAS systems can adapt and select the most appropriate countermeasures to neutralise the drone threat based on the identified threat level and capabilities. These countermeasures can range from electronic warfare techniques, like jamming or spoofing, or kinetic solutions, such as intercepting or disabling the drone.
AI technology facilitates collaboration and networked defence in C-UAS operations. By interconnecting multiple C-UAS sensors and systems, AI algorithms enable seamless communication and data sharing among platforms and units. This collaborative networked defence approach enhances the overall effectiveness of C-UAS operations. When one sensor detects a drone threat, it can quickly transmit the information to other sensors and nearby units, enabling a coordinated response. AI-powered systems can facilitate real-time data exchange, enabling a comprehensive and unified defence against UAS threats.
AI’s impact on C-UAS extends beyond its immediate applications. AI algorithms can continuously learn from past data and adapt to evolving UAS threats. AI can improve its detection capabilities and refine its threat analysis over time by analysing historical data on drone behaviour, tactics, and countermeasures. This continuous learning and adaptability ensure that C-UAS systems stay updated with emerging drone technologies and tactics, effectively countering new and evolving threats.
“Considering AI is also embedded within drones, the scenario is similar to a cat-and-mouse game. Drone systems have become increasingly sophisticated, so solutions must match their sophistication,” concludes Kachan.